Top 21 SQL Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

In today’s tech-driven world, the demand for skilled SQL professionals continues to grow. Whether you’re a seasoned database administrator or just starting your career in SQL, acing an interview is crucial. To help you prepare for your upcoming SQL interview in 2023, we’ve compiled the top 21 SQL interview questions and provided detailed answers to each.


SQL (Structured Query Language) is a fundamental tool for managing and querying relational databases. It plays a pivotal role in the world of data management and is a key skill for anyone working with databases.

What is SQL?

SQL is a domain-specific language used for managing and manipulating relational databases. It allows you to create, retrieve, update, and delete data from a database.

Why is SQL Important?

SQL is crucial for data professionals as it provides a standardized way to interact with databases. It is used in various industries, including finance, healthcare, e-commerce, and more, making it a valuable skill for job seekers.

Basic SQL Interview Questions

What is SQL injection, and how can it be prevented?

SQL injection is a malicious technique where an attacker inserts malicious SQL code into an input field, potentially gaining unauthorized access to a database. To prevent it, use prepared statements or parameterized queries.

Explain the differences between SQL and NoSQL databases.

SQL databases are relational and use structured tables, while NoSQL databases are non-relational and use unstructured data formats. SQL databases are best for complex queries and structured data, whereas NoSQL databases excel with unstructured data and scalability.

What is a primary key?

A primary key is a unique identifier for each record in a database table. It ensures data integrity and allows for efficient data retrieval.

Define normalization and its importance in SQL.

Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and improve data integrity. It involves creating tables and defining relationships between them. Normalization prevents data anomalies and makes the database more efficient.

Intermediate SQL Interview Questions

What are JOINs in SQL, and what are the different types?

JOINs are used to combine data from multiple tables. The main types of JOINs include INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN, RIGHT JOIN, and FULL OUTER JOIN, each serving different purposes in querying data.

Explain the ACID properties in the context of SQL databases.

ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. These properties ensure that database transactions are reliable and maintain data integrity, even in the face of errors or crashes.

How do you optimize a SQL query for better performance?

Query optimization involves using indexes, limiting the use of SELECT *, and avoiding unnecessary JOINs. Analyzing query execution plans and using appropriate indexing strategies are key to query optimization.

What is a stored procedure, and when should you use one?

A stored procedure is a precompiled collection of SQL statements that can be executed as a single unit. They are used to improve performance, maintainability, and security in database applications.

Advanced SQL Interview Questions

What is the difference between UNION and UNION ALL in SQL?

UNION combines the results of two or more SELECT statements, removing duplicate rows, while UNION ALL includes all rows, including duplicates. UNION is slower but eliminates duplicates, while UNION ALL is faster but retains duplicates.

Explain the concept of indexing in SQL databases.

Indexing is a database optimization technique that enhances query performance by creating a data structure that allows for quicker data retrieval. Indexes are essential for large databases with frequent data retrieval.

Describe the various types of SQL constraints.

SQL constraints are rules that enforce data integrity. Common types include PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, NOT NULL, CHECK, and FOREIGN KEY constraints, each serving specific purposes in maintaining data accuracy.

How does a database transaction work?

A database transaction is a sequence of one or more SQL statements treated as a single unit of work. It follows the ACID properties and ensures that data remains consistent, even if an error occurs during execution.

Commonly Asked SQL Interview Questions

What is the purpose of the GROUP BY clause in SQL?

The GROUP BY clause is used to group rows that share a common value into summary rows. It is commonly used with aggregate functions like COUNT, SUM, AVG, etc., to perform calculations on grouped data.

How can you handle NULL values in SQL?

NULL values represent missing or unknown data. You can use the IS NULL and IS NOT NULL operators to check for NULL values. Additionally, you can use the COALESCE or ISNULL function to replace NULL values with a default value.

What are triggers, and when are they used in SQL?

Triggers are database objects that automatically respond to events like INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operations on a table. They are used to enforce data integrity, implement business logic, or log changes.

What is a self-join, and when is it useful?

A self-join is a JOIN operation where a table is joined with itself. It’s useful when you need to relate data within the same table, such as finding hierarchical relationships or comparing rows with similar attributes.

Tips for Acing Your SQL Interview

To excel in your SQL interview, practice these tips:

  • Review SQL fundamentals.
  • Brush up on complex queries, JOINs, and subqueries.
  • Understand database design principles and normalization.
  • Be familiar with transaction management and error handling.
  • Practice query optimization techniques.


Mastering SQL is essential for anyone working with databases, and a solid grasp of SQL interview questions and answers can give you a competitive edge in the job market. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced professional, continuous learning and practice are the keys to success in SQL interviews.


  1. What is SQL?
    • SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a domain-specific language for managing relational databases.
  2. Why is SQL important?
    • SQL is crucial for managing and querying data in various industries, making it a valuable skill for job seekers.
  3. What are ACID properties in SQL?
    • ACID properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) ensure reliable database transactions.
  4. What is the purpose of normalization in SQL?
    • Normalization reduces data redundancy and improves data integrity in databases.
  5. How can you optimize SQL queries for better performance?
    • Query optimization involves using indexes, limiting SELECT *, and analyzing execution plans.
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